Gabala- a city in the Azerbaijan Republic. The administrative center is Gabala city.

Gabala is one of the ancient cities in Azerbaijan. Great Plini wrote that, Kabalaka is the principal city in Albania. In sources Gabala is also called Vostani-Martspan and Kavarak.
In the I-V centuries Gabala was a residence of Arshaki lords. However, in the fifth century, it became the residence of the commanders which Sasanis appointed. In the sixth century in the result of the Khazars attack, the commanders' residence was transferred to Partav. Gabala was included to the Khazar's territory until it was occupied by Arabs in 737.
Qabala bears the name of the ancient Qabala, a city which located 20 kilometres to southwest of the present centre of the district and was the capital of the ancient state of Caucasian Albania. It was one of the political, economic and commercial centres and could be compared with many important and famous cities all over the world like Babylon, Troy and Pompey.
Gabala archaeological expedition started routine excavation since 1959, revealed a larger and most ancient part of the city, and determined that this part of the city was established in B.C IV - B.A I centuries. The city has been destroyed several times because of some historical events. In 60 BC, Roman troops attacked Albania, but they could not occupy Gabala. In Sassanid period Gabala was a major commercial and cultural centre. In the period of Arabian Caliphate Gabala has preserved its importance as a centre of trade and crafts. Gabala declined in XII century during Mongolian attacks, but later it restored.
In the middle of the eighteenth century Gabala lost its original grandeur and importance, people gradually moved from here. In the meantime, a small feudal state, Gutgashen sultanate was established in Gabala territory. Gutgashen later became a district and entered the Sheki khanate and was ruled by naibs appointed by Shaki khans.
in September 8, 1930, Gutgashen district was established as one of the administrative regions of Azerbaijan Republic. Januar 4, 1963, Gabala territory was included to Agdash region, but in January 17, 1964 it became an administrative district again. The district was renamed back to Qabala in March 1991

Sources of Mineral Water
Gamarvan (,, Chomchebulag ") is the terminal-mineral spring 1388 meters above the surface, that is in 5 km north of Gamarvan village, on the valley of the river Bum. Natural temperature is 39.2°C.
It is rich in sulphur and ferrous compounds. The samples taking from the water of the mineral springs "Gamarvan ", "Shongar" and "Yengija" in Gabala, were chemically analyzed in Sankt-Petersburg special laboratory in 1965-1966 and 1973-1977. As a result of analysis, it was determined that the water Gamarvan is rich with silica compounds containing 30-40 mg / l, sulfuric 3-12 mg / l, it's total minerality is 1,52-1,79 g / l , daily capacity is 50 litters.
According to its Chemical and physical properties of water and its therapeutic importance Gamarvan mineral spring is considered to be analogue to the famous Kuldur mineral water which is situated in Western Europe (Priney Peninsula)

Nature preserve and prohibitions
In the southern border of the region in 1958, for protecting the arid (dry) mountain forest and bush (arcane, gum, wild pomogranate, wild grape, and etc.) landscape about 22.400 hectares area, the Turyanchay State Nature Reserve was established.

Shah Dag National Park
Shah Dag National Park was established by the President of Azerbaijan Republic by Executive Order No. 1814 dated December 8, 2006. Its area consist of 115895 hectares, 21014 hectares area is Ismayilli and Pirgulu State Nature Reserve, 81797 hectares area is State Forest Fund lands which situated in Guba, Gusar, Ismayilli, Gabala, Oghuz and Shamakhi regions' administrative areas and 13.084 hectares is useless fields which situated in the higher sides of these regions.
The aims of the creation of the Shah Dag National Park are the recovering, protecting and managing of the kinds of endemic and endangered species of animals and migratory transboundary animals, grassland ecosystem of mountain forest which situated in the high maintain areas, the saving of the lands fertile layer, the protecting, making rich and increasing kinds of the fauna and flora which characterized for the area, also, making balance of Natural Complex stability, making more useful climate for leading scientific research works, as well as the monitoring of the environment, enlightening of the people and providing of the ecotourism in the area which has high tourism potential. The high area where National Park situated has influence on its various climates and the richness of its plant lands and animal environment. Forests of these areas are the famous with making rich, fascinating and beautiful scenes. Vertical changing of relief and tearing to pieces, complex climate environment and landscape make its various floras.
Forests specially consist of İberian and Oak, Eastern Penat and Caucasian Hornbeam. We can meet both pure and mix forests in the National Park because of its huge area. Trees as Ash tree, Garachoxrah, Birch, Willow, Nut, Cherry, Apple, Pear, and bush plants as Damirgara, Medlar, Hawthorn, Blackberry, Hips, Barberry spread in these forests. Shah Dag National Park's fauna is very rich. There are birds as Pheasant, Thrush, Wood pigeon, Quail, Oriole, Chobanaldadan, Wood pecker, Crow, the types of mammals as Roe, Wild boar, Brown bear, Jackal, Rabbit, Squirrel, Wolf, Fox, Deer, Raccoon, Chamois, Wild cat, Goat, Bear, Lynx, Poppy, Badger in these forests. In this area saved the mammals’ sorts as Lynx, Chamois, birds’ sorts as Partridge, Golden eagle, Streppe eagle which names added to "The Red Book" of Azerbaijan Republic.

The main types of climate
Geographical position of the region, being mountainous relief and vertical waist formed complex climate situation in this area and influenced the density of river network, richness of ground flora cover. About 25 billion years ago, humid subtropical sea climate was dominant in the area of the region.
Heavy rains, warm weather, that time, caused of the growing of the evergreen forests in this area. A billion years ago by the influence of the climate this looks like Mediterranean seasides climate in the area of the region. There was a situation for the growing of the plants which were evergreen and the plants which falling its leaves in summer the arid season of the year. 10-12 billion years ago, at the time of the last mainland freezing region's high and middle mountainous waist were covered with mountain glaciers, after the warming of the weather the glaciers became smaller because of melting and reached modern boundaries.

Gabala International Airport was opened by İlham Aliyev, the President of Azerbaijan Republic, November 17, 2011. In the region tobacco, wheat, barley were cultivated, cocoon was kept.

Large residential settlements
There is Vandam in Gabala which is the biggest residential settlement of the city. At the same time there are Big Emilli, Little Emilli, Bum, Nij, Khirkhatala, Nohurgishlag, Aydingishlag, Soltannukha, Duruj, Gamarvan and etc. villages in Gabala.

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